Contemporary Kraków may be regarded as a “globalizing” city, a matter of crucial significance for the question of migration here. The term “globalizing” which is used in this project entails a city which has become intensively connected to a global network of influences relatively recently. Such cities are therefore categorized by relatively recent inflows of immigrants, represented by both high-class professionals (so-called expats) from well developed countries, as well as economic migrants from developing nations. Secondly, in contrast to those which have been regarded as global cities for decades, a globalizing city has not yet formed the institutions which meet the requisite needs to become a global one. In particular, it has not yet developed a long-term civic policy in terms of public services for newcomers. Thus Kraków, as a city which is globalizing, is in the process of learning such policies, adjusting them both to the structure of migration to the city and the uniqueness of the city itself. In order for the city to develop its own policy in this regard, it must learn more about the expectations of the foreigners living in Kraków towards these public services, it needs to identify the barriers which they encounter when using them, and to see if they create their own self-help networks of quasi-public services.

The research conducted in the second half of 2020 attempted an empirical analysis of these expectations and barriers amongst “local foreigners” living in Kraków, together with the support networks that they have created. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. The quantitative method (a survey questionnaire, N:300) was intended to identify patterns and regularities in the occurrence of certain phenomena and to measure their intensity and distribution within the individual categories of foreigners which the study encompassed. The qualitative research (in-depth interviews, N:12) served to explain the root causes of key problems identified by the quantitative research.


• Karolina Czerska-Shaw ( Jagiellonian University)

• Paweł Kubicki (Jagiellonian University)


• Konrad Pędziwiatr (Cracow University of Economics)

• Dobrosława Wiktor-Mach (Cracow University of Economics)


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